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    What happened on July 11

    • July 11, 1156 Siege of Shirakawa-den in Japan.

    • July 11, 1302 Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) - a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France's huge knightly army.

    • July 11, 1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

    • July 11, 1405 Chinese fleet commander Zheng He set sail to explore the world for the first time.

    • July 11, 1476 Giuliano della Rovere is appointed bishop of Coutances.

    • July 11, 1533 Pope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII

    • July 11, 1593 "Giuseppe Arcimboldo first surrealist painter, dies"

    • July 11, 1616 Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.

    • July 11, 1735 Mathematical calculations suggest it was on this day that Pluto moved from the ninth to the eighth most distant planet from the Sun for the last time before 1979.

    • July 11, 1740 Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.

    • July 11, 1750 "Halifax, Nova Scotia almost completely destroyed by fire."

    • July 11, 1776 Captain James Cook begins third voyage.

    • July 11, 1781 Thomas Hutchins designated Geographer of the US

    • July 11, 1789 Jacques Necker dismissed as Finance Minister for France sparking the Storming of the Bastille.

    • July 11, 1792 Prussia army moves into French territory

    • July 11, 1796 The U.S. takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.

    • July 11, 1798 Reestablishment of Marine Corps under the Constitution

    • July 11, 1798 The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War.

    • July 11, 1798 US Marine Corps created by an act of Congress

    • July 11, 1804 Alex Hamilton killed by VP Aaron Burr in pistol duel near Weehawken

    • July 11, 1804 "Former U S Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded at age 49 in a duel at Weehawken, N J with Vice President Aaron Burr, now 48, who has heard of insults directed at him by Hamilton and demanded satisfaction
    • "

    • July 11, 1804 Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.

    • July 11, 1804 VP Aaron Burr kills Alex Hamilton in a pistol duel near Weehawken

    • July 11, 1811 Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro publishes his memoir about molecular content of gases.

    • July 11, 1812 US invades Canada (Detroit frontier)

    • July 11, 1848 The Waterloo railway station in London opens.

    • July 11, 1859 A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.

    • July 11, 1864 "Confederate forces attempt an invasion of Washington, D.C."

    • July 11, 1864 Confederate forces led by Gen J Early begin invasion of Wash DC

    • July 11, 1873 American whisky traders massacre group of Assiniboines; Cypress Hills Massacre forces the Government to send police to the Canadian West.

    • July 11, 1882 The British Mediterranean fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War.

    • July 11, 1888 "118? F (48? C), Bennett, Colorado (state record)"

    • July 11, 1888 Pennsylvania's Monongehela River rises 32' after 24 hour rainfall

    • July 11, 1889 "Tijuana, Mexico was founded"

    • July 11, 1890 Japan holds her first political elections

    • July 11, 1893 The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.

    • July 11, 1895 The brothers Lumire show film for scientists.

    • July 11, 1897 Salomon August Andre leaves Spitsbergen to try to reach the North pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.

    • July 11, 1905 Black intellectuals & activists organize Niagara movement

    • July 11, 1906 Gillette-Brown murder inspires Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy

    • July 11, 1909 "Simon Newcomb celestial mechanics authority, dies"

    • July 11, 1911 "A huge forest fire breaks out in Porcupine district near Timmins, fanned by high winds into a 40 km long front, the fire takes 200 lives; over 3,000 left homeless; burns up 2200 sq. km, destroying the mining communities of South Porcupine, Cochrane and Goldlands."

    • July 11, 1914 Babe Ruth debuts in Major league baseball.

    • July 11, 1916 The first federal grant-in-aid for state roads enacted

    • July 11, 1919 Eight-hour working day and free Sunday made into law in the Netherlands.

    • July 11, 1919 Pay Corps renamed Supply Corps

    • July 11, 1921 "Former US President William Howard Taft sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice."

    • July 11, 1921 Mongolia becomes independent (from China).

    • July 11, 1921 Truce called in the Irish War of Independence; see Irish calendar.

    • July 11, 1922 Hollywood Bowl opens.

    • July 11, 1934 FDR became first pres to travel through Panama Canal

    • July 11, 1936 Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic.

    • July 11, 1936 "Triborough Bridge linking Manhattan, Bronx & Queens opens"

    • July 11, 1937 "George Gershwin composer (American in Paris), dies at 38"

    • July 11, 1940 Petty Officer D. A. Hewitt first Canadian killed in the Battle of Britain.

    • July 11, 1942 First medical experiments are performed at Auschwitz.

    • July 11, 1943 "Gunfire from U.S. cruisers and destroyers stop German and Italian tank attack against Army beachhead at Gela, Sicily."

    • July 11, 1943 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

    • July 11, 1943 World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily - German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.

    • July 11, 1950 Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank.

    • July 11, 1952 Gen Eisenhower nominated as Republican presidential candidate

    • July 11, 1954 "The first White Citizens Council organizes in Indianola, Miss"

    • July 11, 1955 "Congress authorizes all US currency to say ""In God We Trust"""

    • July 11, 1955 New USAF Academy dedicated at Lowry AFB in Colo with 300 cadets

    • July 11, 1955 The phrase In God We Trust is added to all US currency.

    • July 11, 1957 "Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismaili worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III"

    • July 11, 1960 "Independence of Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger."

    • July 11, 1960 "Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Upper Volta & Niger declare independence"

    • July 11, 1960 To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is first published.

    • July 11, 1962 Cosmonaut Micolaev set then record longest space flight - 4 days

    • July 11, 1962 First transatlantic satellite television transmission.

    • July 11, 1962 Fred Baldasare is first to swim English Channel underwater (scuba)

    • July 11, 1965 "Ray Collins actor (Halls of Ivy, Perry Mason), dies at 75"

    • July 11, 1967 Kenny Rogers forms first Edition

    • July 11, 1967 "The first major ""unit train"" movement in Canada is inaugurated by Canadian Pacific - 3,700 tons of sulphuric acid from the Copper Cliff plant of CIL nr. Sudbury to Sarnia, Ontario."

    • July 11, 1969 "David Bowie releases ""Space Oddity"""

    • July 11, 1971 "Carleton Young actor (Court of Last Resorts), dies at 64"

    • July 11, 1971 Copper mines in Chile nationalized.

    • July 11, 1973 "A Brazilian Boeing 707 crashes near Paris on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 people of the 134 on-board."

    • July 11, 1973 "Isabel Randolph actress (Mrs Nester-Our Miss Brooks), dies at 83"

    • July 11, 1974 House Judiciary Committee releases evidence on Watergate inquiry

    • July 11, 1974 World Football League plays first games

    • July 11, 1975 "Chinese archeologists discover a large burial site with 6,000 clay statutes of warriors from 221 BC."

    • July 11, 1976 "In the Panama-Colombia Border Region, The foreshock, a magnitude 6.7, was followed by a major earthquake of magnitude 7.0 four hours later. Several injured and10 houses and 1 bridge were destroyed in the area"

    • July 11, 1977 Martin Luther King is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom.

    • July 11, 1977 Medal of Freedom awarded posthumously to Rev Martin Luther King Jr

    • July 11, 1978 "Los Alfaques Disaster: a truck carrying liquid gas crashes and explodes at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists."

    • July 11, 1979 The space station Skylab returns to Earth.

    • July 11, 1979 US Skylab enters atmosphere over Australia & disintegrates

    • July 11, 1980 American hostage Richard I Queen freed by Iran

    • July 11, 1980 "Peggy Knudson acttress (April-So This is Hollywood), dies at 57"

    • July 11, 1981 Number one hit on UK music charts - Specials - Ghost Town

    • July 11, 1982 Italy beats West Germany 3-1 for soccer's 12th World Cup in Madrid

    • July 11, 1982 Italy wins its third FIFA World Cup.

    • July 11, 1983 "A Boeing 727 crashes into hilly terrain after a tail strike in Cuenca, Ecuador, claiming 119 lives."

    • July 11, 1984 "Canadian dollar sinks to US74.86›, an all-time low to that date, and where are we now how about 67 cents!!!!!"

    • July 11, 1984 England's MusicBox begins satellite transmission to Europe

    • July 11, 1985 Refurbished Columbia moves overland from Palmdale to Dryden

    • July 11, 1986 "Ingrid Kristiansen of Norway runs 10,000 m in world record 30:13.74"

    • July 11, 1986 "Mary Beth Whitehead christens surrogate Baby M, Sara"

    • July 11, 1987 "According to the United Nations, the world population crossed the 5,000,000,000 (5 billion) mark."

    • July 11, 1987 "Heart's ""Alone,"" single goes #1 for 3 weeks"

    • July 11, 1987 "Thomas F Waddell found of Gay olympics, dies of AIDS at 50"

    • July 11, 1988 Mike Tyson hires Donald Trump as an advisor

    • July 11, 1989 "Sir Laurence Olivier acting great, dies at 82"

    • July 11, 1990 "NYC police arrest ""Dartman"" (stabbed over 50 women with darts)"

    • July 11, 1990 "Oka Crisis, First Nations land dispute in Quebec, Canada begins."

    • July 11, 1991 "A Nationair DC-8 crashed during an emergency landing at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 261. The Canadian charter was ferrying Hajj pilgrims on behalf of Nigeria Airways."

    • July 11, 1995 A Cubana de Aviacion Antonov An-24 crashes into the Caribbean off southeast Cuba killing 44 people.

    • July 11, 1995 Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.

    • July 11, 1995 "On the Myanmar-China Border Region a 7.2 quake resulted in 6 people killed, 99 injured, more than 100,000 houses destroyed and 42,000 damaged"

    • July 11, 1995 "Srebrenica Genocide: Serb army from Yugoslavia and Bosnia, capture the Bosniak town of Srebrenica. More than eight thousands inhabitants are murdered. It is generally regarded to be the most horrific event in recent European history."

    • July 11, 1999 In the Honduras a 7.0 quake resulted in 1 person killed and another person died from a heart attack; at least 40 people injured

    • July 11, 2003 Lahore-Delhi bus service resumed after suspension of 18 months.

    • July 11, 2004 CIA Director George Tenet leaves his position at the agency.

    • July 11, 2006 "209 people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India."

    • July 11, 2008 "Federal regulators seize IndyMac Bank after it succumbs to the pressures of tighter credit, tumbling home prices and rising foreclosures"







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